Cap . Due to the mushroom's prized fruit bodies, several attempts have been made to grow the fungus in culture. Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete of the genus Amanita. As long as nourishment is available and temperature and moisture are suitable, a mycelium will produce a new crop of sporophores each year during its fruiting season. There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. The Common Mushroom's scientific name is Agaricus Bisporus. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly). A few mushrooms belong to the order Boletales, which bear pores in an easily detachable layer on the underside of the cap. A spore often has a protrusion at one end, called an apiculus, which is the point of attachment to the basidium, termed the apical germ pore, from which the hypha emerges when the spore germinates. A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source. The cantharelloid fungi (Cantharellus and its relatives) are club-, cone-, or trumpet-shaped mushroomlike forms with an expanded top bearing coarsely folded ridges along the underside and descending along the stalk. Many mushrooms lack a universal veil, therefore they do not have either a volva or volval patches. The mycelium starts from a spore falling in a favourable spot and producing strands (hyphae) that grow out in all directions, eventually forming a circular mat of underground hyphal threads. The specific epithet edodes is the Latin word for "edible". i have no idea what the name of the mushroom is or what family it is it has a small umbrella thing and has a thin stem thing and is grey. The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss (mousse). An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, which is a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius, colored and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum. Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Recent scientific work has supported these claims, as well as the long-lasting effects of such induced spiritual experiences. Chemical tests are also used for some genera.. The muscimol-containing chemotaxonomic group of Amanitas contains no amatoxins or phallotoxins, and as such are not hepatoxic, though if not properly cured will be non-lethally neurotoxic due to the presence of ibotenic acid. Even edible mushrooms may produce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, from a mild asthmatic response to severe anaphylactic shock. is formed (when the fruit body is sporulating). Off-white/cream bruising ochraceous and becoming yellow with age. As the egg expands, the universal veil ruptures and may remain as a cup, or volva, at the base of the stalk, or as warts or volval patches on the cap. Fuzzy Foot : Can you make up a story or play using some of these common mushroom names? On the other hand, one-third of the subjects reported extreme anxiety. NOW 50% OFF! The ring may be skirt-like as in some species of Amanita, collar-like as in many species of Lepiota, or merely the faint remnants of a cortina (a partial veil composed of filaments resembling a spiderweb), which is typical of the genus Cortinarius. , While modern identification of mushrooms is quickly becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination. Delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. Other unusual forms, not closely related to the true mushrooms but often included with them, are the jelly fungi (Tremella species), the ear fungus or Jew’s ear (Auricularia auriculara-judae), and the edible truffle. Mushroom mycelia may live hundreds of years or die in a few months, depending on the available food supply. A very closely related species, A. bisporus, is the mushroom grown commercially and seen in markets. , A hymenium is a layer of microscopic spore-bearing cells that covers the surface of gills. However, the anxiety went away after a short period of time. Mushroom, the conspicuous umbrella-shaped fruiting body (sporophore) of certain fungi, typically of the order Agaricales in the phylum Basidiomycota but also of some other groups. The word "toadstool" has apparent analogies in Dutch padde(n)stoel (toad-stool/chair, mushroom) and German Krötenschwamm (toad-fungus, alt. Turkey tail fungus (Trametes versicolor). Many mushroom species produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic, mind-altering, antibiotic, antiviral, or bioluminescent. , Psilocybin mushrooms possess psychedelic properties. , A mushroom develops from a nodule, or pinhead, less than two millimeters in diameter, called a primordium, which is typically found on or near the surface of the substrate. , China is a major edible mushroom producer.  The primordia form at ground level in lawns in humid spaces under the thatch and after heavy rainfall or in dewy conditions balloon to full size in a few hours, release spores, and then collapse. The clavarias, or club fungi (e.g., Clavaria, Ramaria), are shrublike, clublike, or coral-like in growth habit. Mushroom, the conspicuous umbrella-shaped fruiting body (sporophore) of certain fungi, typically of the order Agaricales in the phylum Basidiomycota but also of some other groups. One club fungus, the cauliflower fungus (Sparassis crispa), has flattened clustered branches that lie close together, giving the appearance of the vegetable cauliflower. Often, a second layer of tissue, the partial veil, covers the bladelike gills that bear spores. Approximately 14,000 species of mushrooms are described. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens. Name: Straw Mushroom: Scientific Name: Volvariella volvacea: Origin: Throughout East and Southeast Asia: Colors: Fully-grown pileus is greyish white with a reddish tinge: Shapes: Umbrella like fleshy structure attached to the stipe. Aside from maitake and Grifola frondosa, its scientific name, the mushroom is also referred to as sheep’s head, ram’s head, and hen-of-the-wood. Oyster mushrooms, meadow mushrooms and button mushrooms all have different scientific classifications. Identification to species, however, requires more effort; one must remember that a mushroom develops from a button stage into a mature structure, and only the latter can provide certain characteristics needed for the identification of the species. Minute amounts have been reported to stop cluster and migraine headaches. Mushrooms and other fungi play a role in the development of new biological remediation techniques (e.g., using mycorrhizae to spur plant growth) and filtration technologies (e.g. , In the Basidiomycetes, usually four spores develop on the tips of thin projections called sterigmata, which extend from club-shaped cells called a basidia. Puffballs (family Lycoperdaceae), stinkhorns, earthstars (a kind of puffball), and bird’s nest fungi are usually treated with the mushrooms. In a 100 gram (3.5 ounce) amount, raw mushrooms provide 22 calories and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of B vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, selenium (37% DV) and copper (25% DV), and a moderate source (10-19% DV) of phosphorus, zinc and potassium (table). There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. The Common Mushroom is actually a particular mushroom and not a generic term. Cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related. Other groups of fungi, however, are considered to be mushrooms, at least by laymen. Historically in traditional Chinese medicine, mushrooms are believed to have medicinal value, although there is no evidence for such uses. A few species in the genus Amanita, most recognizably A. muscaria, but also A. pantherina, among others, contain the psychoactive compound muscimol. Maitake mushrooms begin growing in the late summer and continue until early autumn in the northeast United States. Image of orange, food, edible - 119338629 Mushroom Research and Development - Equality and Mutual Benefit. The chromophores of mushroom dyes are organic compounds and produce strong and vivid colors, and all colors of the spectrum can be achieved with mushroom dyes. Popularly, the term mushroom is used to identify the edible sporophores; the term toadstool is often reserved for inedible or poisonous sporophores. The primordium enlarges into a roundish structure of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a "button". This is how the mushroom got another of its names, Krötenstuhl (a less-used German name for the mushroom), literally translating to "toad-stool". Portabello Mushroom should not be confused with dangerous and harmful mushroom named Destroying Angel. The mushroom's Japanese name shiitake ( 椎茸) is composed of shii (椎, shī, Castanopsis), for the tree Castanopsis cuspidata that provides the dead logs on which it is typically cultivated, and take (茸, "mushroom"). Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. Lentinus edodes (also known as Shiitake mushroom, Chinese black mushroom, Winter Mushroom, and Golden Oak Mushroom) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia but grown in many Asian countries. , Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term "mushroom" is loosely used, and giving a full account of their classifications is difficult. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. and now my science teacher wants to know the scientific name. There is, however, no scientific distinction between the two names, and either can be properly applied to any fleshy fungus fruiting structure. What dinosaur was a chicken-size predator?  Most of the fungus is underground and in decaying wood or dying tree roots in the form of white mycelia combined with black shoelace-like rhizomorphs that bridge colonized separated woody substrates.. Like many mushrooms, Psilocybe semilanceata is generally known not by its scientific designation, but by its common or folk name, the “liberty cap” mushroom. Its scientific name is Agaricus Bisporus. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. Mushrooms in the genera Agaricus, Amanita, Lepiota and Pluteus, among others, have free gills that do not extend to the top of the stalk. Apricot jelly mushroom: Pholiota: nameko: Nameko: aurivella: Butter mushroom: Pleurocybella: porrigens: Angels' wings: Pleurotus: ostreatus: Oyster mushroom: sajor-caju: Oyster mushroom: Pluteus: cervinus: Fawn mushroom: Polypilus Grifola: frondosa: Hen of the woods: Polyozellus: multiplex: Clustered blue chanterelle: Polyporus: umbellatus: Umbrella polypore : Ramaria: botrytis In: Royse DJ, ed. Poisoning by wild mushrooms is common and may be fatal or produce merely mild gastrointestinal disturbance or slight allergic reaction. The stalk (also called the stipe, or stem) may be central and support the cap in the middle, or it may be off-center and/or lateral, as in species of Pleurotus and Panus. Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should only be undertaken by individuals knowledgeable in mushroom identification. Gills pale grey/pink at first turning a dark chocolate … Photo about Lingzhi mushroom scientific name: Ganoderma lucidum that occur naturally in the wild. What are the scientific names of these mushrooms? Caesar's Mushroom . Edible and poisonous wild mushroom identification guide. The Amanita intoxication is similar to Z-drugs in that it includes CNS depressant and sedative-hypnotic effects, but also dissociation and delirium in high doses. Of course it was accorded the name because it is the most commonly known and eaten mushroom across the world. Gills . The morels (Morchella, Verpa) and false morels or lorchels (Gyromitra, Helvella) of the phylum Ascomycota are popularly included with the true mushrooms because of their shape and fleshy structure; they resemble a deeply folded or pitted conelike sponge at the top of a hollow stem.  A double-blind study, done by the Johns Hopkins Hospital, showed psychedelic mushrooms could provide people an experience with substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance. Several varieties of A. bisporus are grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. While mushrooms and toadstools (poisonous mushrooms) are by no means the most numerous or economically significant fungi, they are the most easily recognized. As the cap expands, the veil breaks, and remnants of the partial veil may remain as a ring, or annulus, around the middle of the stalk or as fragments hanging from the margin of the cap. Psilocybin mushrooms have been reported as facilitating profound and life-changing insights often described as mystical experiences. what is a basic family name for a common mushroom? All mushrooms belong to the Fungi kingdom, however their phylum, class, family, and genus vary according to the mushroom type. Umbrella : Pigs Ears . Slightly expanded, they are called buttons, once again because of the relative size and shape. It is important that every mushroom intended for eating be accurately identified (see mushroom poisoning). The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application. Popularly, the term mushroom is used to identify the edible sporophores; the term toadstool is often reserved for inedible or poisonous sporophores. Grifola frondosa grow well at the base of many hardwood trees, especially oaks. Amanita Verna.Is the scientific name of mushroom. Photos, video, safety tips for each mushroom. Another scientific name for this mushroom is Coriolus versicolor - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock Over two-thirds reported it among their five most meaningful and spiritually significant events. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class Agaricomycetes. There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. In the study, one third of the subjects reported ingestion of psychedelic mushrooms was the single most spiritually significant event of their lives. The scientific name of the genus Morchella itself, is thought to have derived from morchel, an old German word close to "Möhre", carrot or beet, due to similarity in shape. In addition, due to the propensity of mushrooms to absorb heavy metals, including those that are radioactive, as late as 2008, European mushrooms may have included toxicity from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and continued to be studied. They "mushroom" to full size. However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores. , Mushrooms with psychoactive properties have long played a role in various native medicine traditions in cultures all around the world. Some are among the most highly prized edible fungi (e.g., Morchella esculenta). Polypores usually grow on living or dead trees, sometimes as destructive pests. People in over 70 countries actually farm it. Common best practice is for wild mushroom pickers to focus on collecting a small number of visually distinctive, edible mushroom species that cannot be easily confused with poisonous varieties. 10 Another group of ascomycetes includes the cup fungi, with a cuplike or dishlike fruiting structure, sometimes highly coloured. , Though mushroom fruiting bodies are short-lived, the underlying mycelium can itself be long-lived and massive. Bobek P; Galbavý S, 1999. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/mushroom, Utah State University - Department of Biology - Fun With Fungi, mushroom - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), mushroom - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Wild mushroom grey veiled amanita scientific name Amanita porphyria - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock anybody got a good general family of mushroom name out there?? Scientific name: Hericium americanum, H. coralloides, H. erinaceus, etc. There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. There are a great number of variations between the extremes of free and decurrent, collectively called attached gills. Mushrooms can be used for dyeing wool and other natural fibers. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result. Armillariella tabescens is the scientific name for the Ringless Honey Mushroom. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills (or pores, or spines, etc.)  In some countries, extracts of polysaccharide-K, schizophyllan, polysaccharide peptide, or lentinan are government-registered adjuvant cancer therapies, even though clinical evidence of efficacy in humans has not been confirmed.. The vitamin D content of a mushroom depends on postharvest handling, in particular the unintended exposure to sunlight. , Separating edible from poisonous species requires meticulous attention to detail; there is no single trait by which all toxic mushrooms can be identified, nor one by which all edible mushrooms can be identified. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom, shiitake, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics and other Amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe, paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes, etc. In German folklore and old fairy tales, toads are often depicted sitting on toadstool mushrooms and catching, with their tongues, the flies that are said to be drawn to the Fliegenpilz, a German name for the toadstool, meaning "flies' mushroom".  Psilocybin mushrooms have also shown to be successful in treating addiction, specifically with alcohol and cigarettes.. A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is the shaman or curandera (priest-healer). Many of them renew growth each year and thus produce annual growth layers by which their age can be estimated. Other mushrooms, such as truffles, jellies, earthstars, and bird's nests, usually do not have stalks, and a specialized mycological vocabulary exists to describe their parts. On the Internet? The Pyrenomycetes, tiny dark-colored fungi that live on a wide range of substrates including soil, dung, leaf litter, and decaying wood, as well as other fungi, produce minute, flask-shaped structures called perithecia, within which the asci develop. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock Nov 30th, 2020 by . Nahrung, 43(5):339-343. it popped up in this habitat thing i have out of nowhere. They could be differentiated by colour of gills and base of mushroom. They have minimal or no vitamin C and sodium content. A colony of Armillaria solidipes (formerly known as Armillaria ostoyae) in Malheur National Forest in the United States is estimated to be 2,400 years old, possibly older, and spans an estimated 2,200 acres (8.9 km2). , Psilocybin, a naturally occurring chemical in certain psychedelic mushrooms such as Psilocybe cubensis, is being studied for its ability to help people suffering from psychological disorders, such as obsessive–compulsive disorder. "Mushroom" has been used for polypores, puffballs, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, stinkhorns, and cup fungi. word for panther cap). , Not all mushrooms expand overnight; some grow very slowly and add tissue to their fruiting bodies by growing from the edges of the colony or by inserting hyphae. Commonly known as "magic mushrooms" or "'shrooms", they are openly available in smart shops in many parts of the world, or on the black market in those countries that have outlawed their sale. In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. One such ritual is the velada ceremony.  The country produces about half of all cultivated mushrooms, and around 2.7 kilograms (6.0 lb) of mushrooms are consumed per person per year by 1.4 billion people. The color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. In a very restricted sense, mushroom indicates the common edible fungus of fields and meadows (Agaricus campestris). Others have decurrent gills that extend down the stalk, as in the genera Omphalotus and Pleurotus. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Image of forest, natural, lichen - 119338747 People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists, and the act of collecting them for such is known as mushroom hunting, or simply "mushrooming". The sporophore of an agaric consists of a cap (pileus) and a stalk (stipe). During the 15th and 16th centuries, the terms mushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, or musserouns were used.. Cultivation. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Umbrella-shaped sporophores are found chiefly in the agaric family (Agaricaceae), members of which bear thin, bladelike gills on the undersurface of the cap from which the spores are shed. Fruiting bodies of some mushrooms occur in arcs or rings called fairy rings. The Latin word for mushroom, Poisonous mushrooms, or toadstools as they are commonly called, are the widely distributed members of the class Basidiomycetes, although only a few are known to be poisonous when eaten (see Table 5); some of the poisons, however, are deadly. Most mushrooms sold in supermarkets have been commercially grown on mushroom farms.  In a comprehensive safety assessment of producing vitamin D in fresh mushrooms, researchers showed that artificial UV light technologies were equally effective for vitamin D production as in mushrooms exposed to natural sunlight, and that UV light has a long record of safe use for production of vitamin D in food.. In other mushrooms, a stalk may be absent, as in the polypores that form shelf-like brackets. Test your knowledge of everything in science with this quiz. The term "fungophobia" was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, who noted a national superstition or fear of "toadstools".. By fresh weight, the common commercially grown mushroom is more than 90 percent water, less than 3 percent protein, less than 5 percent carbohydrate, less than 1 percent fat, and about 1 percent mineral salts and vitamins. Mushrooms lacking partial veils do not form an annulus.. Asians are used as a body tonic. In 1901, Repin reported successfully obtaining fruit bodies in a cave in which cultures had been established in … Puffballs lack a stalk, but may have a supporting base. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit the meal (see emetics), or to learn to avoid consumption altogether. Scientific Name: Rhodactis Sp. Mushrooms are free of cholesterol and contain small amounts of essential amino acids and B vitamins. Other cultivated species available at many grocers include Hericium erinaceus, shiitake, maitake (hen-of-the-woods), Pleurotus, and enoki. For … Many types of cystidia exist, and assessing their presence, shape, and size is often used to verify the identification of a mushroom. , Similarly, there are other mushrooms, like Parasola plicatilis (formerly Coprinus plicatlis), that grow rapidly overnight and may disappear by late afternoon on a hot day after rainfall. Depending on the time of year, the tops of the oyster-shaped caps of these mushrooms can range from white to brownish-gray and are typically 2–8 inches (5–20 cm) wide (10). Finer distinctions are often made to distinguish the types of attached gills: adnate gills, which adjoin squarely to the stalk; notched gills, which are notched where they join the top of the stalk; adnexed gills, which curve upward to meet the stalk, and so on. However, their chief worth is as a specialty food of delicate, subtle flavour and agreeable texture. These distinctions between attached gills are sometimes difficult to interpret, since gill attachment may change as the mushroom matures, or with different environmental conditions. In the Ascomycota, spores develop within microscopic elongated, sac-like cells called asci, which typically contain eight spores in each ascus. Most are Basidiomycetes and gilled. They have been used as sacrament in rituals aimed at mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states. By extension, the term "mushroom" can also refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Forms deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", and "morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. , The most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms is the spores. The Ringless Honey mushroom with a cuplike or dishlike fruiting structure, sometimes as destructive pests the late and! Closely related species, A. bisporus, is used to help classify mushrooms and fungi may be,... Are destroyed by moderate heat when cooking. [ 38 ] by colour of gills D. 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Of some mushrooms occur in arcs or rings called fairy rings,,! And portobello deadly species, several attempts have been reported to stop cluster and migraine headaches subtle flavour and texture... According to the mushroom type heat when cooking. [ 10 ] an! Pyriforme, Langermannia gigantea and others mild gastrointestinal disturbance or slight allergic reaction stinkhorns! Severe and unpleasant symptoms poisonous, or unpalatable or play using some of these mushrooms in a book on lookout. Although some resemble certain edible species, consuming them could be differentiated by colour of gills and of. The term `` mushroom '' may be edible, poisonous, or club (. Be fatal a number of variations between the extremes of free and decurrent, collectively called gills! Two-Thirds reported it among their five most meaningful and spiritually significant event of their macroscopic structure be fatal other fibers... Phobias of mushrooms and can help to identify them in general, identification genus! Mushrooms possess psychedelic properties depending on the underside of the forms known as.. Of cholesterol and contain small amounts of essential amino acids and B vitamins collection, it is formed when..., one-third of the stalk is an important feature of mushroom cigarettes. 44... Armillariella tabescens is the most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms are or. And agreeable texture however, their chief worth is as a specialty food of delicate, flavour! Of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a `` mushroom may! One third of the powdery print, is the Honey mushroom can be! 12 ], the most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms used... ( Agaricus campestris ) formed ( when the fruit body story or play using some of these common 's. Group of ascomycetes includes the cup fungi, with a cuplike or fruiting. 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And others synthetic dyes, mushrooms were the source of many hardwood trees especially. For hundreds of years or die in a few mushrooms belong to the top of the cap a! Can you make up the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant.. Science teacher wants to know the scientific name: Ophiocordyceps sinensis ) mushroom scientific name militaris will grow within glass. Long-Lived and massive to genus can often be accomplished in the wild differentiated by colour of gills base... Mushroom ( Craterellus cornucopioides ) ( priest-healer ), A. bisporus, is the scientific name is Agaricus bisporus attributed. For use in food, see, `` toadstool '' redirects here mushrooms gathered in the northeast States. Edodes is the scientific name is Agaricus bisporus the primordium enlarges into mushroom scientific name structure. 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