This article throws light upon the six things to know about research design which makes research work an easy task to perform. Prohibited Content 3. The more the agreement among the observers the more objective are the observation, recording and evaluation of the responses. (x) What should be the approximate expenditure? research is undertaken to: Explore an idea, Probe an issue, Solve a problem, Make an argument that compels us to turn to outside help. You should assess in advance about any ethical issues, any legal requirements, or any kinds of risk involved in your study, to you or your health, safety and well-being of study participants. Young, “Research design is the logical and systematic planning and directing of a piece of research.” Selltiz and others define research design as “a catalogue of the various phases and facts relating to the formulation of a research effort. Hence the reason (rationale) for a discussion of the research design and methodology: Firstly, this is to provide the plan or blueprint for the research. In order to execute your research study without any flaws, you should have all the necessary skills and experience. As a blue print, the research design may at best be only tentative and useful to the extent of providing the researcher with a series of guide posts to keep him headed is the right direction. A report writer should be extra careful in quoting facts and statistical data. These qualities enable the investigator to take stock of various developments occurring in his field of study and make steady progress. Research design will refer to the entire process of planning and carrying out a research study”. The extraneous variables are those which are not the direct focus of research. The researcher, before going through other references, endeavors to remove and solve the factors and the causes responsible for giving rise to the problem. (vi) What should be the amount of material or number of cases for the study? Good Research: How to Identify the Right Topic? Read all about research design definition, characteristics, and types. Each of these may be used as an independent variable. (iii) Before-After with Control Group Design: In this design the research has a control group against which the results of the experimental groups are compared. But it is not possible to incorporate each one of these variables within the same research undertaking. There are several criteria for good research design. Kumar (2011) , for example, defines a research design as a plan, structure, and strategy of investigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research problems or questions. It is a channel of communication between research findings and the readers of the report Types Technical report It gives emphasis on 3. One of the important characteristics of a good research is that the purpose of the research … Similarly the design giving the smallest experimental error is considered to the best design and the design yielding maximal information covering various aspects of a problem is construed as the most efficient design because it is appropriate to the research problem. On the other hand, the experimental variable is introduced in the experimental group. Many times, research findings are not followed because of improper presentation. In order to surmount the financial constraints, paucity of time, a representative sample of the research universe should be drawn so as to gather relevant information. Simultaneously, the clarification of concepts and the operational definition of the terms should also be ensured so as to make them emendable to measurement. The Specific Aims section is a one-page formal statement of the objectives and milestones of a research project in a grant application. A good design is one that minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data. But from the analytical point of view seven broad categories may be mentioned: Among all categories of experimental designs, after only design appears to be the simplest. It also enables us to demonstrate the association between two or variables. Thus, it can be called as a variation of the after-only design. Experimental design enables the researcher to draw causal inferences. Validity implies self-consistency or absence of self-contradiction. Such a state is achieved by selecting two groups which are equal in all significant receipts and choosing either of the groups as experimental group, and the other as the ‘control group’, and thereafter exposing the ‘experimental group’ to the assumed causal variable, while keeping the ‘control’ group under control. The term ‘plan’ implies the overall scheme or programme of the research embracing on outline of what the researcher intends to do, ranging from the stage of formulation of hypotheses and their working implications to the final stage of data analysis. The aim of an exploratory or formulative study may be clarification of concepts, establishing priorities for future research and collection of data about the actual conditions which affect an intended research. Hypotheses are tentative generalizations which are expected but based on unconfirmed relationship between two or more variables. The former one is the variable the researcher is interested in explaining and predicting. A primary description of a problem serves the basis so as to relate the hypotheses with the source of the problem and only those data which form and corroborate the hypotheses are collected. Therefore, identification of the anticipated relationship and the guiding theoretical premises assume greater importance. As regards the first purpose, a research is designed to enable the researcher to arrive at an objective, accurate, valid and economic solution of the given problem to the maximum possible extent. Good experimental research should be logical, systematic, replicable, and logical. Research methodology is considered by some authors to be the same as research design whereas others treat research design as a sub-set of research methodology. In order to establish causality, the social scientists take help of three types of evidence: association, direction and non-spuriousness. Usually the first step in such designing is accurate formulation of research problem wherein research objectives are precisely stated and principal areas of investigation are properly linked. From what has been stated above, we can derive two basic purposes: (a) To provide answers to the research questions. Image Guidelines 5. The second purpose of research is to control the effects of the potentially relevant independent variables on the behaviour of the research subjects. Since a social scientist is primarily interested in studying the relationship among some characteristics or properties of the observed units which are subject to variation over cases, over time or over both cases and time, it is necessary for a researcher to decide which variables should be the focus of research. In order to reach at right conclusions, a sample must possess the following essential characteristics. This consists in measuring the dependent variable only after the experimental subjects have been exposed to the experimental variable. Keeping in view the aforesaid design decisions, the researcher may split the overall practical research design into the following phases: (a) The sampling design, dealing with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study; (b) The observational design, specifying the conditions under which the observations are to be made; (c) The statistical design, taking into account the quantitative and statistical aspects of the design which concerns with the questions of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analyzed. Usually a descriptive design involves detailed numerical descriptions, such as distribution of the population of a community by age, sex, caste or education.

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